宋思琼1,钟佳琦2,覃虹1,卢开晶1,贾宇尧1, 蒋瑶1.湖南地区10个品种薄壳山核桃的坚果品质评价[J].中国油脂,2023,48(9):.[SONG Siqiong1, ZHONG Jiaqi2, QIN Hong1, LU Kaijing1, JIA Yuyao1, JIANG Yao1.Evaluation of nut quality of 10 Carya illinoensis varieties in Hunan province[J].China Oils and Fats,2023,48(9):.]
湖南地区10个品种薄壳山核桃的坚果品质评价
Evaluation of nut quality of 10 Carya illinoensis varieties in Hunan province
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  薄壳山核桃  坚果品质  表型性状  经济性状  综合评价
英文关键词:Carya illinoensis  nut quality  phenotypic traits  economic characters  comprehensive evaluation
基金项目:湖南省自然科学基金面上项目(2022JJ30999)
作者单位
宋思琼1,钟佳琦2,覃虹1,卢开晶1,贾宇尧1, 蒋瑶1 1.中南林业科技大学 林学院经济林培育与保护省部共建教育部重点实验室经济林育种与栽培国家林业局 重点实验室长沙 410004 2.中南林业科技大学 食品科学与工程学院长沙 410004 
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中文摘要:
      为研究薄壳山核桃品种间坚果品质差异,筛选出在湖南地区表现优良的薄壳山核桃,以10个品种薄壳山核桃和2个品种普通核桃为材料,分别对各品种坚果表型性状〔坚果横径、纵径、侧径、果形指数、果实形状、壳面、果壳颜色、果顶、果底(基)、缝合线、横隔膜〕、经济性状(坚果质量、坚果含水率、果壳厚度、出仁率、取仁难易、核仁充实度、核仁饱满度、核仁颜色、核仁风味、核仁含油率)以及其油脂脂肪酸组成及含量进行测定,对薄壳山核桃品质指标进行了相关性分析和主成分分析,综合评价不同品种薄壳山核桃坚果品质。结果表明:在10个品种薄壳山核桃中,‘实生1号’‘德西拉布’‘实生3号’和‘福克特’果形指数较高,分别为2.24、2.15、2.15、1.99;单果质量较大的是‘金奥瓦’‘福克特’和‘德西拉布’,分别为9.24、8.30、8.06 g;出仁率较高的是‘实生4号’和‘金奥瓦’,分别为57.86%、57.08%;含油率较高的为‘福克特’‘佩洛奎’和‘德西拉布’,分别达到72.24%、70.66%、68.24%;薄壳山核桃绝大多数品质指标相互间都有相关性;主成分分析表明,‘德西拉布’的综合得分最高,其次是‘福克特’。综上,风味较优、破壳更简易的‘德西拉布’和含油率高、果实饱满的‘福克特’在湖南地区综合表现优良,适合在湖南地区推广栽培。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the difference in nut quality among varieties of Carya illinoensis (pecan) to screen out pecan with good performance in Hunan province, 10 pecan varieties and 2 walnut varieties were used as materials, and their phenotypic traits (side diameter, transverse diameter and longitudinal diameter, fruit shape index, fruit shape, shell surface, shell color, fruit top, fruit bottom (base), shell seal characteristics, diaphragm) and economic characters (nut weight, nut water content, shell thickness, kernel yield, difficulty in kernel extraction, kernel filling rate, kernel fullness, kernel color, kernel flavor, kernel oil content), and the fatty acid composition and content of oil, were determined and analyzed. In addition, correlation and principal component analysis were carried out on the quality indicators of different varieties of pecan to comprehensively evaluate the nut quality. The results showed that the fruit shape indexes of Shisheng No.1, Desirable, Shisheng No.3 and Forket were higher, with 2.24, 2.15, 2.15 and 1.99, respectively. The heavier single fruit was Kiowa, Forket and Desirable, with 9.24, 8.31 g and 8.06 g, respectively. Shisheng No.4 and Kiowa had higher kernel yield, with 57.86% and 57.08%, respectively. The varieties with high oil content was Forket, Peruque and Desirable, with 72.24%, 70.66% and 68.24%, respectively. Most of the quality indicators of pecans were correlated with each other. The principal component analysis showed that Desirable had the highest overall score, followed by Forket. In conclusion, Desirable with better flavor and easier shell breaking and Forket with high oil content and kernel fullness have excellent comprehensive performance in Hunan, and they are suitable for popularization and cultivation in Hunan.
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